It was well into the twentieth century before the remaining Seminole Indians in Florida signed a peace treaty with the United States. Twice in the first third of the nineteenth century the Indians fought the United States Army. In 1817, United States armed forces crossed into what was then Spanish-owned Florida to arrest a Seminole chief. That started the first war. In the second conflict twenty years later Missouri lost one of its most distinguished citizens.

AOWM – October 6