Missourians have been enjoying one of the top 10 coolest summers on record this year, thanks in part to atmospheric conditions over the Pacific Ocean. Anthony Lupo, Climatologist with the University of Missouri Anthony Lupo says this wasn’t totally unexpected. And Lupo says the weather phenomenum known as El Nino could be forming in the Pacific Ocean and would explain why we’ve had cooler temperatures this summer. He says depending on where El Nino forms in the Pacific could determine if the cool summer is follwed up with a warmer winter. Lupo says the drawbacks to the warmer winter include not enough snow cover to protect the soil, as well as setting us up for a drought next spring.